OVERVIEW OF THE MUNICIPALITY
Tamluk, which is the ancient city of Tamralipta is located lower down the river Hooghly and sea port, had been an important waterway for more than 3000 years. This ancient port city and kingdom was bounded by the Bay of Bengal in the south, river Rupnarayana in the east and Subarnarekha River in the west. The Rupnarayana is the joint flow of the river Dwarkeshwar and the river Shilai. The Bay of Bengal and these great rivers and their numerous branches created a prosperous and easy water navigational system fostering commerce, culture and early contacts with the people outside the region. At the same time, these rivers helped to develop the agriculture in this region
Archaeological remains show continuous settlement from about 3rd century BC. It was known as Tramralipti (in the Purans and the Mahabharata) or Tamralipta (in Mahabharata) or Tamalika (in historical documents) or Tamalitti (in foreigners' descriptions) or Tamoluk (in the British Raj). It was a seaport, now buried under river silt. For this reason, Tamluk has many ponds and lakes remaining today.
Tamluk (22° 22' N 87° 55' E) is the headquarter of East Medinapur district, West Bengal and is situated at a distance of 100 kms from Kolkata connected by road. The nearest railway station is Mecheda lying on Kolkata – Kharagpur route of the southeastern railway.
Tamluk town is situated on the bank of river Rupnarayan about 85 K.M. from Kolkata and about 50 K.M. from Haldia connected with Railway and Roadway communication through N.H. - 41.Total area of the town about 17.86 K.M. The town expending in such way that it is very difficult to identify the Panchayat area and the Municipal at the outskrit in all its sides even the tow towns will be physically amalgamated very soon. As of the 2001 census of India, Tamluk had a population of 45,826. Males constitute 52% of the population and females 48%. Tamluk has an average literacy rate of 77%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 83%, and female literacy is 72%. Tamluk, 11% of the population is under 6 years of age.
Situated on the right bank of Rupnaryan river, Tamluk is found mentioned in ancient Pali and Sanskrit literatures in different names such as Tamralipta, Damalipta, Tamralipi, Tamraliptika or Velakula. It functioned as an important port from where Indian sea-faring vessels sailed to distant lands. Tamluk also founds a place of mention in the works of Pliny and the great geographer Ptolemy as Taluctae and Tamalites respectively. Renowned Chinese pilgrims like Fahien, Hiuen Tsang and Itsing who visited this place have left vivid accounts of the flourishing port city. Besides a prosperous commercial city, it was great religious centre also.
The antiquity and importance of the site have been established through excavation from time to time. Assessing the importance of the site, Archaeological Survey of India in the year 1954-55 undertook systematic excavation to reveal its cultural sequence. The excavation revealed the earliest occupation from Neolithic up to modern times.